Carbon in soil

Measuring carbon in soil

Carbon distribution in soil is intricately linked to soil health. However, repeatable measurements of carbon distribution typically require destructive sampling and laboratory analyses. Soil carbon distributions in both natural and managed landscapes significantly vary due to numerous factors related to topography, mineralogy, hydrology, land use history, and vegetation. In order to accurately inventory soil C distributions and dynamics over time, we are developing a new technique that relies on neutron inelastic scattering to measure elemental distribution. This approach can be used to image a volume of approximately 50 cm × 50 cm × 30 cm (depth) with a few centimeters resolution, for example the root zone of a plant. To achieve this, we use neutrons created in a deuterium-tritium fusion reaction. The products of this reaction are an alpha particle and a neutron. Due to momentum conservation, both particles are emitted in opposite directions in the center-of-mass frame. This allows us to measure the neutron direction by detecting the alpha particle with a position sensitive detector. The neutron can then induce an inelastic scattering reaction on a carbon nucleus present in the soil, and this event produces a gamma ray with a characteristic energy for the carbon isotope. Using a gamma detector, we measure these gamma rays, which allows us to perform time-of-flight analysis between arrival times of the alpha and gamma particles. Using the information from both measurements (alpha and gamma), we can reconstruct the spatial distribution of the carbon atoms and other elements in soil.


Adelphi is a maker of neutron generators and was our industry partner during the APRA-E funding cycle. They provided the API neutron generator(s) and developed an improved version during the project that we are still currently using.

In the news


LBNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant

Funding is provided by LBNL as part of the Carbon Negative Initiative (2021-2022).


Funding was provided by ARPA-E under the ROOTS program (2018-2021).


  • A. Unzueta Mauricio, B. Ludewigt, B. Mak, T. Tak, A. Persaud, An all-digital associated particle imaging system for the 3D determination of isotopic distributions. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 92, 063305 (2021)., arxiv

  • M. A. Unzueta, E. Brodie, C. Brown, C. Castanha, C. Gary, C. H. Pries, W. Larsen, B. Ludewigt, A. Rosenstrom, A. Persaud, in Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XXI, R. B. James, A. Burger, S. A. Payne, Eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2019;, vol. 11114, pp. 197–202.

  • M. A. Unzueta, W. Mixter, Z. Croft, J. Joseph, B. Ludewigt, A. Persaud, Position sensitive alpha detector for an associated particle imaging system. arXiv [physics.ins-det] (2019), p. 050005.

  • M. Ayllon Unzueta, T. Tak, A. Rosenstrom, E. Brodie, C. Brown, C. Castanha, C. Gary, C. Hicks Pries, W. Larsen, B. Ludewigt, A. Persaud, Repeatable, non-destructive, spatially resolved measurements of carbon-in-soil. Soil Science (2019), , doi:10.1002/essoar.10501311.1.

  • Grant Giesbrecht , Ariel Amsellem , Timo Bauer, Brian Mak, Brian Wynne, Zhihao Qin, Arun Persaud, Hardware-Control: Instrument control and automation package, Journal of Open Source Software, 7(72), 2688 (2022)